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 Electronics Electronics Catlog DIC Catlog

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## D Flip-Flop

The D flip-flop avoids the undefined states in the RSFF truth table by reducing the number of input options.

Figure: Statically triggered D flip-flop (transparent latch) mechanized with clocked RS, and the schematic symbol and its truth table.

The statically clocked DFF is also known as a transparent latch.

One very useful variation on the RS latch circuit is the Data latch, or D latch as it is generally called. As shown in the logic diagram below, the D latch is constructed by using the inverted S input as the R input signal. The single remaining input is designated "D" to distinguish its operation from other types of latches. It makes no difference that the R input signal is effectively clocked twice, since the CLK signal will either allow the signals to pass both gates or it will not.

For comparison, you can review the RS NAND latch circuit if you wish. Use the "Back" button or equivalent to return here.

In the D latch, when the CLK input is logic 1, the Q output will always reflect the logic level present at the D input, no matter how that changes. When the CLK input falls to logic 0, the last state of the D input is trapped and held in the latch, for use by whatever other circuits may need this signal.

Because the single D input is also inverted to provide the signal to reset the latch, this latch circuit cannot experience a "race" condition caused by all inputs being at logic 1 simultaneously. Therefore the D latch circuit can be safely used in any circuit.

The edge-triggered D flip-flop is easily derived from its RS counterpart. The only requirement is to replace the R input with an inverted version of the S input, which thereby becomes D. This is only needed in the master latch section; the slave remains unchanged.

One essential point about the D flip-flop is that when the clock input falls to logic 0 and the outputs can change state, the Q output always takes on the state of the D input at the moment of the clock edge. This was not true of the RS and JK flip-flops. The RS master section would repeatedly change states to match the input signals while the clock line is logic 1, and the Q output would reflect whichever input most recently received an active signal. The JK master section would receive and hold an input to tell it to change state, and never change that state until the next cxycle of the clock. This behavior is not possible with a D flip-flop.

The edge-triggered D NAND flip-flop is shown below.