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Electronics Catlog
DIC Catlog

Number System
Conversions Between Number System
Arithematic Operations
1's & 2's Complement
Gray Codes
Arithmetic Circuits
Logical Gates and Truth Table Funtions
Boolean Expressions
Boolean Algebra
Karnaugh Map
Encoder & Decoder
TTL Circuits
555 Timer
Flip Flops
RS Flip - Flop
JK Flip - Flop
D Flip - Flop
Shift Register
Schmitt Trigger
Asynchronous Counters
Synchronous Counters
Digital - Analog Conversion
Data Flow
Memory Drives
Electronics Equation
Resistor Color Codes

Electronics References

Ohm's and Joule's Laws

Ohm's Law

    NOTE: the symbol "V" is sometimes used to represent voltage instead of "E". In some cases, an author or circuit designer may choose to exclusively use "V" for voltage, never using the symbol "E." Other times the two symbols are used interchangeably, or "E" is used to represent voltage from a power source while "V" is used to represent voltage across a load (voltage "drop").

Kirchhoff's Laws

    "The algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero."

    Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)

    "The algebraic sum of all currents entering and exiting a node must equal zero."

    Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

Series circuit rules

    * Components in a series circuit share the same current. Itotal = I1 = I2 = . . . In

    * Total resistance in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances, making it greater than any of the individual resistances. Rtotal = R1 + R2 + . . . Rn

    * Total voltage in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltage drops. Etotal = E1 + E2 + . . . En

Parallel circuit rules

    * Components in a parallel circuit share the same voltage. Etotal = E1 = E2 = . . . En

    * Total resistance in a parallel circuit is less than any of the individual resistances. Rtotal = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . . 1/Rn)

    * Total current in a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the individual branch currents. Itotal = I1 + I2 + . . . In

Series and parallel component equivalent values

Series and parallel resistances

Series Parallel Resistances

Series and parallel inductances

Series Parallel Inductances

Series and Parallel Capacitances

Series Parallel Capacitances

Capacitor sizing equation

Capacitor Sizing

Inductor sizing equation

Inductor Sizing

Time constant equations

Value of time constant in series RC and RL circuits

    Time constant in seconds = RC

    Time constant in seconds = L/R

Calculating voltage or current at specified time

Time Constant Voltage

Calculating time at specified voltage or current

Time Constant Current

AC circuit equations

Inductive reactance

Inductive Reactance

Capacitive reactance

Capacitive Reactance

Impedance in relation to R and X

    ZL = R + jXL

    ZC = R - jXC

Ohm's Law for AC

Ohm's Law AC

Series and Parallel Impedances

Series Parallel Impedances

    NOTE: All impedances must be calculated in complex number form for these equations to work.



    NOTE: This equation applies to a non-resistive LC circuit. In circuits containing resistance as well as inductance and capacitance, this equation applies only to series configurations and to parallel configurations where R is very small.

AC power

AC Power

AC Power Factor