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 Electronics Electronics Catlog DIC Catlog

 Number System Conversions Between Number System Arithematic Operations 1's & 2's Complement Gray Codes Arithmetic Circuits Logical Gates and Truth Table Funtions Boolean Expressions Boolean Algebra Karnaugh Map Multiplexer DeMultiplexer Encoder & Decoder TTL Circuits Multivibrators 555 Timer Flip Flops RS Flip - Flop JK Flip - Flop D Flip - Flop Shift Register Schmitt Trigger Asynchronous Counters Synchronous Counters Digital - Analog Conversion Data Flow ROM Memory Drives Electronics Equation Resistor Color Codes

## Electronics References

### Ohm's and Joule's Laws

NOTE: the symbol "V" is sometimes used to represent voltage instead of "E". In some cases, an author or circuit designer may choose to exclusively use "V" for voltage, never using the symbol "E." Other times the two symbols are used interchangeably, or "E" is used to represent voltage from a power source while "V" is used to represent voltage across a load (voltage "drop").

### Kirchhoff's Laws

"The algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero."

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)

"The algebraic sum of all currents entering and exiting a node must equal zero."

Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

### Series circuit rules

* Components in a series circuit share the same current. Itotal = I1 = I2 = . . . In

* Total resistance in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances, making it greater than any of the individual resistances. Rtotal = R1 + R2 + . . . Rn

* Total voltage in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltage drops. Etotal = E1 + E2 + . . . En

### Parallel circuit rules

* Components in a parallel circuit share the same voltage. Etotal = E1 = E2 = . . . En

* Total resistance in a parallel circuit is less than any of the individual resistances. Rtotal = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . . 1/Rn)

* Total current in a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the individual branch currents. Itotal = I1 + I2 + . . . In

### Value of time constant in series RC and RL circuits

Time constant in seconds = RC

Time constant in seconds = L/R

ZL = R + jXL

ZC = R - jXC

### Series and Parallel Impedances

NOTE: All impedances must be calculated in complex number form for these equations to work.

### Resonance

NOTE: This equation applies to a non-resistive LC circuit. In circuits containing resistance as well as inductance and capacitance, this equation applies only to series configurations and to parallel configurations where R is very small.