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Electronics Catlog
DIC Catlog

Number System
Conversions Between Number System
Arithematic Operations
1's & 2's Complement
Gray Codes
Arithmetic Circuits
Logical Gates and Truth Table Funtions
Boolean Expressions
Boolean Algebra
Karnaugh Map
Encoder & Decoder
TTL Circuits
555 Timer
Flip Flops
RS Flip - Flop
JK Flip - Flop
D Flip - Flop
Shift Register
Schmitt Trigger
Asynchronous Counters
Synchronous Counters
Digital - Analog Conversion
Data Flow
Memory Drives
Electronics Equation
Resistor Color Codes

Number System

Bit & Byte

    Computer uses the binary system. Any physical system that can exist in two distinct states (e.g., 0-1, on-off, hi-lo, yes-no, up-down, north-south, etc.) has the potential of being used to represent numbers or characters.

A binary digit is called a bit. There are two possible states in a bit, usually expressed as 0 and 1.

    A series of eight bits strung together makes a byte, much as 12 makes a dozen. With 8 bits, or 8 binary digits, there exist 2^8=256 possible combinations. The following table shows some of these combinations.

Decimal Equivalent of Binary

K & M

    2^10=1024 is commonly referred to as a "K". It is approximately equal to one thousand. Thus, 1 Kbyte is 1024 bytes. Likewise, 1024K is referred to as a "Meg". It is approximately equal to a million. 1 Mega byte is 1024*1024=1,048,576 bytes. If you remember that 1 byte equals one alphabetical letter, you can develop a good feel for size.

Number System

    You may regard each digit as a box that can hold a number. In the binary system, there can be only two choices for this number -- either a "0" or a "1". In the octal system, there can be eight possibilities:

"0", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7".

In the decimal system, there are ten different numbers that can enter the digit box:

"0", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9".

In the hexadecimal system, we allow 16 numbers:

"0", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", and "F".

    As demonstrated by the following table, there is a direct correspondence between the binary system and the octal system, with three binary digits corresponding to one octal digit. Likewise, four binary digits translate directly into one hexadecimal digit. In computer usage, hexadecimal notation is especially common because it easily replaces the binary notation, which is too long and human mistakes in transcribing the binary numbers are too easily made.