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Computer Science
Computer Catlog
Comm Network Catlog

Network Components
Network Types
The OSI Model
Protocol Notations
Physical Layer
Modulation
Transmission Media
Multiplexing
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Physical Layer Standards
DataLink Layer
Error Checking
Retrans - Flow Control
Sliding Window Protocol
Data Link Layer Standards
Network Layer
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Routing
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Internetworking
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Session Layer Role
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Presentation Layer
Abstract Syntax Notation
Application Layer
Common Application
Specific Application
Message Handling
LAN
IEEE 802 Standards
ANSI FDDI Standard
ISDN
Frame Relay
Broadband ISDN & ATM

Transmission Media


    Digital data can be transmitted over many different types of media. Selecting a transmission medium is guided by comparing transmission requirements against the medium's characteristics. Four important criteria influence the choice:

Bandwidth

.    Bandwidth is the maximum frequency range that can be practically supported by a medium. This is usually expressed in kilo Hz (kHz) or mega Hz (MHz). For example, analog transmission of human speech typically requires a bandwidth of 4 kHz. Also related, is the notion of data rate, which denotes the maximum number of bits per second (bps) that can be transmitted. For example, a data rate of 10 mbps means that 10 million bits of data can be transmitted in each second. Because of their obvious relationship, the terms bandwidth and data rate are sometimes used interchangeably. Because of distortion factors, bandwidth and data rate are usually inversely proportional to the communication distance.


Cost

.Two types of cost are relevant: (i) the cost of installing the medium, including the medium-specific equipment that may be needed, and (ii) the cost of running and maintaining the medium and its equipment. There is usually a need for tradeoff between cost, bandwidth, and distance.

Reliability

. Some media, by their physical nature, transmit data more reliably than others. Low reliability translates into a higher number of errors, which needs to be balanced against the potential cost of recovering from the errors (e.g., retransmission, more complex hardware and software).

Coverage

.The physical characteristics of a medium dictate how long a signal can travel in it before it is distorted beyond recognition. To cover larger areas, repeaters are needed to restore the signal, and this increases the costs. Transmission media may be classified into the following categories:

Transmission Media

    * Copper Wire. This is the oldest form of electronic transmission medium. Its use dates back to the development of telegraph in the 1800s and earliest telephone systems. Early installations used open wires, but these were superseded by twisted pairs, which consist of a pair of insulated and twisted wires. Twisted pairs are superior because of reduced crosstalk.2 They are very effective for relatively short distances (a few hundred feet), but can be used for up to a few kilometers. A twisted pair has a bandwidth to distance ratio of about 1 MHz per kilometer. The performance of the twisted pair can be substantially improved by adding a metallic shield around the wires. Shielded wires are much more resistant to thermal noise and crosstalk effects. Twisted pairs used for long distance connections (e.g., telephone lines) are usually organized as a much larger cable containing numerous twisted pairs.


    * Coaxial Cable. A coaxial cable consists of four concentric cylinders: an inner conductor, surrounded by an insulating cylinder, surrounded by an outer conductor, surrounded by a final protective cover. This combination is called a coax. Coaxial cables are superior to twisted pairs both in terms of bandwidth and communication distance, and can provide bandwidth to distance ratios in order of 10s of MHz per kilometer. Like twisted pairs, multiple coaxes are usually housed within one cable, which may also contain twisted pairs. Coaxial cables are extensively used in LANs and long distance telephone trunk lines.

    * Optical Fiber. An optical fiber consists of two concentric cylinders: an inner core surrounded by a cladding. Both the core and the cladding are made of transparent plastic or glass material. The core is used for guiding a light beam, whereas the cladding (which has a different refractive index) acts as a reflector to prevent the light from escaping from the core. Because optical fiber uses a light signal instead of electrons, it does not suffer from the various noise problems associated with electromagnetic signals. The signal is usually generated by a laser or Light Emitting Diode (LED). Optical fibers can provide bandwidth to distance ratios in order of 100s of MHz per kilometer. Like other cables, hundreds of optical fibers are usually housed within one cable. They are being increasingly used by telecommunication carriers for long distance digital trunk lines. Current trends promise that they will replace twisted pair residential loops in the near future.

    * Radio. Radio signals have been used for a long time to transmit analog information. They are particularly attractive for long distance communication over difficult terrain or across the oceans, where the cost of installing cables can be too prohibitive. A minimum radio system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. It may operate at a variety of frequency bands, ranging from hundreds of Hz to hundreds of giga Hz (GHz). A huge range of transmission bandwidths are therefore possible. Microwave is by far the most widely used form of radio transmission. It operates in the GHz range with data rates in order of 100s of mbps per channel. Telecommunication carriers and TV stations are the primary users of microwave transmission.

    An important form of microwave system is a satellite system, which is essentially a microwave system plus a large repeater in the sky. The signals transmitted by earth stations are received, amplified, and retransmitted to other earth stations by the satellite. Like other microwave systems, the bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 10s of MHz each, providing data rates in order of 100s of mbps. Because of their high bandwidths, satellites are capable of supporting an enormous number and variety of channels, including TV, telephone, and data. The satellite itself, however, represents a major investment and typically has a limited lifetime (at most a few decades).

    Another increasingly-popular form of radio is cellular radio, which is currently being used by carriers for providing mobile telephone networks. These operate in the VHF band and subdivide their coverage area into conceptual cells, where each cell represents a limited area which is served by a low-power transmitter and receiver station. As the mobile user moves from one cell area to another, its communication is handed over from one station to another.

    * Infra-red. Infra-red signals are suitable for transmission over relatively short distances (the signal is easily reflected by hard objects). The signal is generated and received using optical transceivers. Infra-red systems represent a cheap alternative to most other methods, because there is no cabling involved and the necessary equipment is relatively cheap. Data rates similar to those of twisted pairs are easily possible. However, applications are limited because of distance limitations (of about one kilometer). One recent use of infra-red has been for interfacing hand-held and portable computing devices to LANs.